When we talk about leadership and management styles and approaches, we will ask questions in our head, such as:
“Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success?
What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates?”
In this blog, I will discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between leadership and management, as well as the approaches that used in managing the work of subordinates; and which managing styles and approach is the most effective.
The Similarities and Differences between management and leadership
George B. Weatherby (1999), the President and CEO of American Management Association said that managagement is “the allocation of scarce resources against an organization’s objective, the setting of priorities, the design of work and the achievement of results.” Also, manager is more to controlling rather than persuading. On the other hand, leadership emphasis on the development of common vision which inspiring and motivating people to play a part to the organization’s vision and persuading people to align their self-interest with the organization’s interest. Therefore, leadership refers more to persuading, not controlling. In addition, Bennis and Nanus (1985) asserted that the distinction between managing and leading is significant, where manager does things right and leader does the right thing.
Furthermore, the table below will illustrate the differences between leadership and management in term of directing a group of people within a group
|Influence relationship||Authority relationship|
|Leaders and followers||Managers and subordinates|
|Intend real changes||Produce and sell goods and or services|
|Intended changes reflect mutual purposes||Goods/services result from coordinated activities|
Sources: (Hickman, 1998)
Source: (Hurley, 2013)
From all the information given above, I would come to a point where, leader is a person who use their power to influence a group of people, called “followers”; meanwhile manager is a person who manage and use their authority power to control and direct a group of people (subordinates) in the organization. In the organization, leader is doing the right thing, means that leader should set organizational priorities, allocate human and financial resources to fulfill the company’s vision. By saying so, leader needs to understand what it takes to do the right things, and ensure that decisions made could be implemented.
Whereas, to do things right manager needs to focus on the organization’s operational, such as enhancing the business’s performance, increasing company’s profit, and increase customer satisfaction.
The Leadership Styles
Sources: (Goleman, 2010)
According to Goleman’s leadership style, there are six leadership styles that contain the emotional intelligence components. They are coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting, and coaching (Goleman, 2010).
“DO WHAT I SAY” approach. Under this approach, the subordinate has a pressure to comply with directions given by leader where this approach is based on fear and subordinate’s perception that the leader has the ability to punish (Mullins and Christy, 2016).
“COME WITH ME” approach; the leader states the overall goal of the group and yet at the same time the leader also allow freedom for the subordinates to choose their own means of achieving the group’s goal.
“PEOPLE COME FIRST, TASK SECOND” attitude. This leadership style has a high level of harmony, however, Leader under this leadership style offers very little advice to the group, which often leads to confusion to the group members (Cardinal, 2013).
“EVERYONE HAS INPUT”; the leader encourages team member to contributes voices in decision making, where this style allow the team to produce fresh ideas. (Goleman, 2010).
“DO AS I DO, NOW”. Under this style, the leader expects and model excellent and self-direction, where leader undertakes many tasks oneself and expect a team member to follow his or her example (Benincasa, 2012).
“TRY THIS”. With this style, leader assists and persuade team member to develop their strengths and enhance their performance (Cardinal, 2013).
To conclude, I would say that there is no single principle as the best approach because to be the best approach, a particular leadership styles should be applied suitably with the characteristics of the leader or the manager; and be applied in the right situation. In other words, that leadership style will function best when leader know which leadership approach need to be applied in certain situations. This will require manager to be flexible and adaptive to the changes of working environment.
“Each in the right measure, at just the right time. Such flexibility is tough to put into action, but it pays off in performance. And better yet, it can be learned.” (Havard Business Review, 2010).
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Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E. and McKee, A., 2002. The new leaders: Transforming the art of leadership into the science of results (p. 14). London: Little, Brown.
Hickman, G. (1998). Leading organizations. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE.
Hurley, A. (2013). Management Versus Leadership – 6 Qualities of a Great Leader. [online] Running A Biz. Available at: http://www.runningabiz.com/management/management-versus-leadership-6-qualities-great-leader/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].
Mullins, L. and Chrissy, G. (2016). Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11th ed. New York: Pearson, pp.330-334.
Weathersby, G.B. 1999, “Leadership vs. management”, Management review, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 5.