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My Vision of Leadership

“Leadership is hard to define and good leadership even harder. But if you can get people to follow you to the end of the earth, you are a good leader.” (Nooyi, 2015).

 

The objective of this blog is to look into my personal way of leadership, such as, which type of leadership do I believe I am and what kind of leader do I want to be.

My Vision of Leadership

Through various experiences I have experienced from being led by many different leaders, it gives me a point of view that good leader is someone who can lead and influence people objectively. Objectively means that there Is no bias among all members or employees. (CCG Resources, 2017). With objectivity, all members would feel equally valued and considered within the organization, as a result employees feel motivated and prosperous; consequently, employees will truthfully participate their work in the organisation. Without the existence of employees, the role of leader would be meaningless, and without the existence of employee, the organization would not be able to operate its business fruitfully (CCG Resources, 2017). Guirdham (2012) pointed out that leaders should have good interpersonal and communication skills in order to be able to communicate effectively and minimize the misunderstanding. Besides, leader should also possess good emotional intelligence “as the ability to recognize our own and others’ feelings, for motivating ourselves and for controlling emotions in ourselves and in our relationships.” (Goleman, 1998). Therefore, it is important for the leader to be able to listen, respects and pay attention to its employees. Furthermore, a good leader should also be able to apply certain leadership styles and power in certain circumstances (Yulk, 2013). Adam and Bornstein (2016), claimed leader should be transparent, inspiration, authenticity, open minded, empowerment and decisive. It is certainly not easy to be a good leader, as human being, we all have weaknesses, through authenticity a wise leader should admit its weaknesses and willing to learn from others. Therefore, I would say that my vision of leadership is more refers to democratic leadership styles. Although I used to have an autocratic leadership style.

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Who has inspired my understanding of effective leadership?

One of effective leader that come out in my head is Indra Nooyi. She is a female leader or CEO of PepsiCo since 2001 till today. The reason for choosing Indra Nooyi is because she inspired me that you should not order someone something that you, yourself think that you wouldn’t do. From my previous autocratic style, I used to dictate people to do thinks that I don’t like to do, which I don’t think it is a good manner. By looking at Indra Nooyi’s message it gives me a huge realization.

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My Personal Style of Leadership

Honestly, I have not experienced any professional position as a leader yet, however, I have several experiences to be a group leader in school, university, and society project. During my high school time, I was chosen as a leader of the entrepreneurship project in my school. On that time, I have an autocratic leadership style, where I tend to ask people to do what I think is the best and not listening to other’s views. But as I am getting older, my leadership style has been slowly changing into more democratic style, where I started to listen and exchange views with other, which I found much better than my previous leadership style in terms of effectiveness.

Also, from the feedback that I am given currently, the team members that I led said that I am a good motivator and have an open-minded as I could listen and accept different point of view of others. I believe that through many group activity that I have experienced, it slowly change my leadership style, and give me better view of an effective leadership.

 Leadership Skills That I Want to Develop Throughout My MBA Degree

I want to be more responsible with the actions that I take as a leader, as well as improving my interpersonal skills and emotional intelligence so that I know better how to deal with certain persons and problems within the group effectively, especially in problem-solving.

 

 

References

Adam and J, Bornstein. (2016). 22 Qualities That Make a Great Leader. Available: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/270486. Last accessed 26th March 2017.

 

CCG Resources. (2017). A company’s most valuable asset is its employees. – CCG Resources. [online] Available at: http://ccgresources.com/a-companys-most-valuable-asset-is-its-employees/ [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

 

Choi, S. (2007). Democratic Leadership: The Lessons of Exemplary Models for Democratic Governance. [online] https://colowebsite.regent.edu. Available at: https://colowebsite.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/ijls/new/vol2iss3/choi/Choi_Vol2Iss3.pdf [Accessed 28 Mar. 2017].

 

Forbes, M. (2014). Forbes Welcome. [online] Forbes.com. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/moiraforbes/2014/07/03/power-woman-indra-nooyi-on-why-women-cant-have-it-all/#4859592a36bc [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

 

Goleman, D. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

 

Guirdham, M. (2002) Interactive Behaviour at Work (3rd Edition) Essex UK: Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

 

Kunter, B. (1965). Elements and problems of democratic leadership. In A. W. Gouldner, Studies in leadership: Leadership and democratic action (pp. 459- 467). New York: Russell & Russell.

 

Luthans, F., Slocum, J. and Teahen, J. (2015). Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies | SAGE Publications Ltd. [online] Uk.sagepub.com. Available at: https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/journal-of-leadership-organizational-studies/journal201858 [Accessed 4 Apr. 2017].

 

Namin-Hedayati, D. (2014). Leadership Qualities of Indra Nooyi, leadership examples. [online] Center For Work Life. Available at: http://www.centerforworklife.com/leadership-qualities-indra-nooyi/ [Accessed 26 Mar. 2017].

 

Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in Organizations (8th edition). London: Pearson Education

 

 

Leadership and Change

“Change is nothing new and a simple fact of life. Some people actively thrive on new challenges and constant change, while others prefer the comfort of the status quo and strongly resist any change. It is all down to the personality of the individual and there is little management can do about resistance to change” (Mullins 2010: 753).

Regarding this topic, this blog will first demonstrate what are the reasons that cause individual and organizational resists to change. Then, I will express my own opinion whether it is essential for organization to change.

What makes individual and organization resist to change?

There are several common reasons that refrain individual from change in the organization. The most common reason people resist to change because they fear of unknown outcomes, lack of competency, attach with old procedures, change in status quo, and so on (Rick, 2011). The figure below shows the psychological reactions to change.

CLASSIC PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS TO CHANGE

Reactions-to-change-1024x614(Source: Rick, 2011)

Individual may deny change initially when they do not understand the need of change; they will feel angry, anxiety with the changes; and finally they will accept and have confidence at the end when the purpose of the change is clear already.

In relation to organization, often it is not easy for organization to alter its organizational culture that has been formed over a long period of time – how things are normally done. Also, in most cases, change required significant amount of resources for organization to change, hence, organization resists to change. Change of organsation’s management can be viewed as a threat to the power or influence of particular group in the organization (e.g. the power of individual’s control about decisions, resources or information) (Mullins and Christy, 2016).

What force organization to change?

Generally, an organizational change is mainly because of the external forces rather than internal urge (Goodstein and Warner Burke, 1991).

Mullin (2010), claimed that change also arises within the organization itself. A lot of changes within an organization is part of a natural process of maturity of the business.

For instance, organization may want to adopt new technology or new methods of work to increase the efficiency of the company with intention to improve the organization’s business performance, or a company may also want to change because of the changes attitudes of employees. These internal forces can be managed with careful planning.

On the other hand, as mentioned before, the main pressure of change is mainly coming from external forces. For example, the changes of legal forces in the market may require the organization to adopt the new policy; the changes of customer’s attitudes may push the company to do some changes in order to retain or attract customer’s attention. Another possible external force is globalization. Mullins and Christy (2016) said that it is important for organization to strategically prepare to face the need of change in order to remain competitive and successful in the market.

Arguably, I personally agree that it is essential for organization to be able to change or be flexible with the changes of external business environment. Organization may need to alter its outdated and or lack of flexibility way of performing it business and be able to respond to new challenges.

How Change Can be Managed

Lewin proposed three-phase process of behavior modification (Goodstein and Warner Burke, 1991).

  1. Unfreezing – the recognition of the need for change and improvement to occur
  2. Movement – development of new attitudes or behaviour and the implementation of change
  3. Refreezing – stabilizing change at the new level and reinforcement through supporting mechanism, for example, policies, structure, or norms
Stages in a Planned-change Effort

Manager needs to consistently stick to the organization’s goal in order to be more aware of the need of organizational management change. There are some stages that manager can do to overcome resistance to change (Kitchen, 2012):

Source: (Kitchen, 2012)

 

  1. Leadership commitment and communication

Manager need to the communicate the need of change, and give direction to employees.

  1. Define the business result and destination

Manager must focus on clearly identified goal that provides a sense of continuity.

  1. Identify the current state

Manager needs to understand what is the company’s current state by understanding the business or cultural context and announce the change process will take place.

  1. Build creative tension

Manager should identify enablers and barriers.

  1. Design the change
  2. Implement the change
  3. Sustain the change

In term of financial industry, it is crucial for the organization to capable to change as banks interaction a lot with customers, governments, and clients; and operates in a highly competitive market. Therefore, I think banks needs continual changes in its business operation, particularly due to legislation issue and customer’s changes attitudes.

Conclusion

Many reasons cause organization resist to change, however, it is essential for manager to understand the need of change and implement changes in order to survive in the market. Manager needs to carefully plan to ensure that changes are practical and distribute beneficial outcomes to the organization, although changes are not easy to be implemented and required several stages to reach actual changes.

 

References 

Clayton, M. (2007). Scott and Jaffe’s Change Grid – the human response to organisational change. [online] Available at: http://www.mikeclayton.co.uk/DownloadFiles/Scott-Jaffe.pdf [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].

Connelly, M. (2016). The Kurt Lewin Model Of Change. [online] Change Management Coach. Available at: http://www.change-management-coach.com/kurt_lewin.html [Accessed 16 Mar. 2017].

Goodstein, L. and Warner Burke, W. (1991). Creating successful organization change. [online] http://www.sciencedirect.com/. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009026169190050J [Accessed 15 Mar. 2017].

Kitchen, N. (2012). Search. [online] Facebook.com. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/search/top/?q=LSBF%20Global%20MBA%20-%20Lecture%20in%20Organisational%20Change&ref=eyJzaWQiOiIwLjc5NDI2MjM4MjU0NDQ0NDgiLCJxcyI6IkpUVkNKVEl5VEZOQ1JpVXlNRWRzYjJKaGJDVXlNRTFDUVNVeU1DMGxNakJNWldOMGRYSmxKVEl3YVc0bE1qQlBjbWRoYm1sellYUnBiMjVoYkNVeU1FTm9ZVzVuWlNVeU1pVTFSQSIsImd2IjoiYmVlMDlmOTNmYTczMmNmYTU5YTFjYjZkOWY0NTBkMzg5MjQyNGU0OSJ9 [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].

Mullins, L. and Christy, G. (2016). Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11th ed. New York: Pearson, pp.558-559.

Mullins, Laurie J.. 2010., Management and Organisational Behaviour. [online]. Financial Times/ Prentice Hall. Available from:<http://www.myilibrary.com?ID=278599> 15 March 2017

Ramakrishnan, S. (2014). Change Management Models – Scrum Alliance. [online] Scrumalliance.org. Available at: https://www.scrumalliance.org/community/articles/2014/march/change-management-models [Accessed 16 Mar. 2017].

RICK, T. (2011). Top 12 reasons why people resist change – Understanding reactions to change. [online] Torben Rick. Available at: https://www.torbenrick.eu/blog/change-management/12-reasons-why-people-resist-change/ [Accessed 18 Mar. 2017].

Steven H. Appelbaum, Sally Habashy, Jean‐Luc Malo, Hisham Shafiq, (2012) “Back to the future: revisiting Kotter’s 1996 change model”, Journal of Management Development, Vol. 31 Iss: 8, pp.764 – 782

 

 

Most Effective Leadership & Management Styles & Approaches

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When we talk about leadership and management styles and approaches, we will ask questions in our head, such as:

“Which personal style should managers adopt to ensure success?

What is the most effective approach to managing the work of subordinates?”

In this blog, I will discuss the similarities and dissimilarities between leadership and management, as well as the approaches that used in managing the work of subordinates; and which managing styles and approach is the most effective.

The Similarities and Differences between management and leadership

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George B. Weatherby (1999), the President and CEO of American Management Association said that managagement is “the allocation of scarce resources against an organization’s objective, the setting of priorities, the design of work and the achievement of results.” Also, manager is more to controlling rather than persuading. On the other hand, leadership emphasis on the development of common vision which inspiring and motivating people to play a part to the organization’s vision and persuading people to align their self-interest with the organization’s interest. Therefore, leadership refers more to persuading, not controlling. In addition, Bennis and Nanus (1985) asserted that the distinction between managing and leading is significant, where manager does things right and leader does the right thing.

Furthermore, the table below will illustrate the differences between leadership and management in term of directing a group of people within a group

 

Leadership Management
Influence relationship Authority relationship
Leaders and followers Managers and subordinates
Intend real changes Produce and sell goods and or services
Intended changes reflect mutual purposes Goods/services result from coordinated activities

Sources: (Hickman, 1998)

team-management-vs-team-leadership.png

Source: (Hurley, 2013)

From all the information given above, I would come to a point where, leader is a person who use their power to influence a group of people, called “followers”; meanwhile manager is a person who manage and use their authority power to control and direct a group of people (subordinates) in the organization. In the organization, leader is doing the right thing, means that leader should set organizational priorities, allocate human and financial resources to fulfill the company’s vision. By saying so, leader needs to understand what it takes to do the right things, and ensure that decisions made could be implemented.

Whereas, to do things right manager needs to focus on the organization’s operational, such as enhancing the business’s performance, increasing company’s profit, and increase customer satisfaction.

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The Leadership Styles

164addcSources: (Goleman, 2010)

According to Goleman’s leadership style, there are six leadership styles that contain the emotional intelligence components. They are coercive, authoritative, affiliative, democratic, pacesetting, and coaching (Goleman, 2010).

Coercive

“DO WHAT I SAY” approach. Under this approach, the subordinate has a pressure to comply with directions given by leader where this approach is based on fear and subordinate’s perception that the leader has the ability to punish (Mullins and Christy, 2016).

Authoritative

“COME WITH ME” approach; the leader states the overall goal of the group and yet at the same time the leader also allow freedom for the subordinates to choose their own means of achieving the group’s goal.

 

Affiliative

“PEOPLE COME FIRST, TASK SECOND” attitude. This leadership style has a high level of harmony, however, Leader under this leadership style offers very little advice to the group, which often leads to confusion to the group members (Cardinal, 2013).

Democratic

“EVERYONE HAS INPUT”; the leader encourages team member to contributes voices in decision making, where this style allow the team to produce fresh ideas. (Goleman, 2010).

Pacesetting

“DO AS I DO, NOW”. Under this style, the leader expects and model excellent and self-direction, where leader undertakes many tasks oneself and expect a team member to follow his or her example (Benincasa, 2012).

Coaching

“TRY THIS”. With this style, leader assists and persuade team member to develop their strengths and enhance their performance (Cardinal, 2013).

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To conclude, I would say that there is no single principle as the best approach because to be the best approach, a particular leadership styles should be applied suitably with the characteristics of the leader or the manager; and be applied in the right situation. In other words, that leadership style will function best when leader know which leadership approach need to be applied in certain situations. This will require manager to be flexible and adaptive to the changes of working environment.

 

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“Each in the right measure, at just the right time. Such flexibility is tough to put into action, but it pays off in performance. And better yet, it can be learned.” (Havard Business Review, 2010).

Please leave a comment below.

References

Benincasa, R. (2012). 6 Leadership Styles, And When You Should Use Them | Fast Company. [online] Fast Company. Available at: https://www.fastcompany.com/1838481/6-leadership-styles-and-when-you-should-use-them [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Benjamin, L. and Dabbah, M. (2017). Leadership Styles. [online] RED SHOE MOVEMENT. Available at: http://redshoemovement.com/tag/leadership-styles/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Cardinal, R. (2013). 6 management styles and when best to use them – The Leaders Tool Kit – Leaders in Heels. [online] Leaders in Heels. Available at: https://leadersinheels.com/career/6-management-styles-and-when-best-to-use-them-the-leaders-tool-kit/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Changingminds.org. (2017). Leadership vs. Management. [online] Available at: http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/articles/manager_leader.htm [Accessed 13 Mar. 2017].

Goleman, D., 2000. Leadership that gets results. Harvard business review, 78(2), pp.4-17.

Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E. and McKee, A., 2002. The new leaders: Transforming the art of leadership into the science of results (p. 14). London: Little, Brown.

Hickman, G. (1998). Leading organizations. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: SAGE.

Hurley, A. (2013). Management Versus Leadership – 6 Qualities of a Great Leader. [online] Running A Biz. Available at: http://www.runningabiz.com/management/management-versus-leadership-6-qualities-great-leader/ [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Mullins, L. and Chrissy, G. (2016). Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11th ed. New York: Pearson, pp.330-334.

Weathersby, G.B. 1999, “Leadership vs. management”, Management review, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 5.

The Challenge of Managing Diverse Teams

 

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 “Research has consistently shown that diverse teams produce better results, provided they are well led.” 

The ability to bring together people from different backgrounds, disciplines, cultures, and generations and leverage all they have to offer, therefore, is a must-have for leaders” (Ibarra and Hansen 2011: 71).

This blog explores the advantages and challenges of managing diverse team that contribute to an organisation. Several theories or models would be demonstrated so as to support the discussion in this blog.

Working with diverse people in a team might be frustrating and stressful, however it would also deliver better results in term of decision making process and overall performance of the team as a whole, at the same time.

Albion & Gagliardi (2007) stated that “It is somewhat a difficult task to handle people who are physically, psychologically, culturally and ethnically different from each other. Management of employees is largely dependent on the quality of leadership organizations have.”

Regarding to this discussion, first of all,  Tuckman’s team building model would be demonstrated.

Stages of Group Formation
Tuckman’s Team Building Model (Sources: Shaw,1998)

 

As can be seen from the diagram above, each team will go through the five phases of team development stages, which are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. The team development processes would be started from forming stage up until to the last stage, which is adjourning. At the first stage, leader has an authoritative power to lead the team because the roles and responsibility of the team member are not clear yet at this point (Manktelow et al., 2017). Meanwhile, at the last stage, team member disbands from the team because the purpose of the teams has been fulfilled and every member can move to the new things (Businessballs.com, 2017).

How does diversity matter in Financial industry?

According to Bushra, Usman and Naveed (2011), the success of an organization is dependent on the hard working, loyal and involved managers and employees.

Additionally, Mitchell et al (2015) said that the involvement of leader is aimed to encourage and value the different point of views of diverse members within team interactions, and has strong potential to cope obstacles to interprofessional team performance. Hence, I would say that it is important for the leader of an organization to possess the ability to manage a diverse team in the organization. It means that as a manager of an organization it is essential for the manager to be able to bring the diverse team member all together as one and work together towards to the organization’s goal.

Barbara Stewart (2016) mentioned

“We consistently find that more diversity leads to a BETTER ecosystem. More diversity creates a biological environment which is more responsive, adaptive, and handles shocks or changes better. Those are great things in a habitat like the desert . . . they are also great things in our workplaces!

The diversity that we each have as part of our background and experience lends different perspectives and experiences, and it is these differences that lead to more robust outcomes in business.”

From the quotation above, I would acknowledge that diversity does matter in the financial industry as it allows the organisation to increase its core business performance in terms of customer and employee satisfaction; and produce better decision making. Furthermore, recent studies also declared that there is a strong correlation between diversity and financial performance where more diverse companies are better to gain top expertise and improve their customer orientation, employee satisfaction, and decision making, causing to an upstanding cycle of returns (BBA, 2015).

What are the benefits of diverse team?

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As has mentioned before, Barbara Stewart (2016) mentioned that diverse group would allow the group or organization to be more responsive, adaptive, and handles disturbance or changes better which more likely to produce more advantageous result for the organization.

What are the challenges of diverse team?

diversity-challenges

The challenges of managing diverse team includes the high management costs, discrimination, communication issue, lack of freedom of speech, integration issue, and so on.

Besides, it is also important for the manager of an organization to be familiar with the cultural differences to capable managing the team successfully and deliver better result. This would be supported by Hofstede’s six dimensions of culture.

Screenshot 2017-03-12 14.26.39
The comparison of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions between Indonesia and UK (Sources: Hofstede, 2017)

As shown above, Indonesian has high power distance (78) while British has considerably low power distance (35). With a low power distance, British people has a like family relationship within an organisation, where power is allocated equally, whereas, Indonesian people with a high-power distance where deferential to figures of authority and normally accept an unequal distribution of power, and leaders give direction to the team members (Hofstede, 2017).

Moreover, Indonesian has low level of individualism while British has very high level of individualism. This dimension tells us that Indonesian people are collectivism. This means that individual belongs to the group, and they (Indonesian) tend to sacrifice their values and goals for the group’s. Meanwhile, British has a very high individualism; this means British are very individualistic and private person.

Conclusion

Leader of the team is necessary to be aware of the cultural differences through Hofstede’s model. Additionally, the team development would go through several stages, which starts from forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Diversity team delivers both advantages and disadvantages, hence the leader of the team needs to be smart enough to avoid the disadvantages and create more advantages to the team as a whole.

Quotation-Malcolm-Forbes-Diversity-the-art-of-thinking-independently-together-9-88-87

 

 

Reference

Barbara Stewart, C. (2016). Diversity in Finance: It Matters. [online] CFA Institute Enterprising Investor. Available at: https://blogs.cfainstitute.org/investor/2016/09/26/diversity-in-finance-it-matters/ [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].

Bushra, F., Usman, A. and Naveed, A. (2011). Effect Of Transformational Leadership On Employees’ Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment In Banking Sector Of Lahore (Pakistan) – ProQuest. [online] Search.proquest.com. Available at: http://search.proquest.com/openview/1ff18510531dcb4419aff5fac891b182/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=646295 [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].

Clarionlearning.com.au. (2017). Clarion Learning | Team Learning. [online] Available at: http://www.clarionlearning.com.au/team-learning.php [Accessed 10 Mar. 2017].

BBA.org.uk (2015). Diversity and inclusion in banking. (2015). [online] Available at: file:///Users/mitchelleshaw/Downloads/diversity-in-banking-low-res-Final%20(1).pdf  [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].

Dike, P. (2013). Cite a Website – Cite This For Me. [online] Theseus.fi. Available at: https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/63581/Thesisxx.pdf?sequence=1 [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].


Elizabeth Yeh
Charlene SmithClaretha JenningsNancy Castro, (2006) “Team building: a 3‐dimensional teamwork model”, Team Performance Management: An International Journal, Vol. 12 Iss: 5/6, pp.192 – 197

Graves, S. (2017). Tips on Improving Team Performance – stephengraves.us. [online] stephengraves.us. Available at: http://stephengraves.us/tips-improving-team-performance/ [Accessed 10 Mar. 2017].

Greenberg, J. (2004). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges and Solutions. [online] Multiculturaladvantage.com. Available at: http://www.multiculturaladvantage.com/recruit/diversity/diversity-in-the-workplace-benefits-challenges-solutions.asp [Accessed 25 Feb. 2017].

Green, K., Lopez, M., Wysocki, A., Farnsworth, D. and Clark, J. (2002). Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools1. [online] https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HR/HR02200.pdf. Available at: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/HR/HR02200.pdf [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017].

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2 (1). Retrieved from dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307-0919.1014.

Hofstede, G. (2017). Indonesia – Geert Hofstede. [online] Geert-hofstede.com. Available at: https://geert-hofstede.com/indonesia.html [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].

Johnson, R. (2017). Examples of Diversity Problems in the Workplace. [online] Smallbusiness.chron.com. Available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/examples-diversity-problems-workplace-19389.html [Accessed 8 Mar. 2017].

Manktelow, J., Jakson, K., Edward, S., Cook, L., Khan, B. and Eyre, E. (2017). Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing: Understanding the Stages of Team Formation. [online] Mindtools.com. Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_86.htm [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

Manktelow, J., Jakson, K., Edward, S., Cook, L., Khan, B. and Eyre, E. (2017). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions: Understanding Different Countries. [online] Available at: https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_66.htm [Accessed 5 Mar. 2017].

Mitchell, R, Boyle, B, Parker, V, Giles, M, Chiang, V, & Joyce, P 2015, ‘Managing Inclusiveness and Diversity in Teams: How Leader Inclusiveness Affects Performance through Status and Team Identity’, Human Resource Management, 54, 2, pp. 217-239, Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost, viewed 12 March 2017.

 

Owner, J. (2011). Tuckman’s Group Development Model – Neocrisis. [online] Neocrisis.com. Available at: http://www.neocrisis.com/articles/178-jazzking2001s-/7002-tuckmans-group-development-model-v15-7002 [Accessed 6 Mar. 2017].

Shaw, J. (1998). Effective Organizational Comunications. [online] Pornpankajornkliforbsc304.blogspot.co.uk. Available at: http://pornpankajornkliforbsc304.blogspot.co.uk/2014_06_01_archive.html [Accessed 11 Mar. 2017].

 

Zarndt, F. (2012). What did you say? interculture communication [HICSS 45 2012-01-04. [online] Slideshare.net. Available at: https://www.slideshare.net/cowboyMontana/what-did-you-say-interculture-communication-hicss-45-20120104 [Accessed 10 Mar. 2017].

 

Ethical vs Unethical Leadership ?

simages

In this blog I would like to discuss about “Ethical Leadership”. How people perceive someone’s actions as ethical. As regards to an organisation, this would be – how would a leader or CEO of the company be seemed as an ethical leader in leading the company?

Leadership is the process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objective (Mary Kay Copeland , 2015).

Meanwhile, ethical leadership is related to increased employee motivation and more positive work attitudes; and an ethical leader is a leader who is able to act fairly and justly. They are perceived as caring, truthful and principled persons who make objective decisions and who communicate the importance of ethics and ethical behaviour to their followers (Lisa C. Ehrich Jessica Harris Val Klenowski Judy Smeed Nerida Spina , 2015)

Nevertheless, Mullins and Christy (2016) stated that there is no single view in general ethics of what makes something right or wrong. Regarding to this, two principles would be used as a fundamental or basic belief in coming to a decision of whether a leader is ethical or unethical.

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2 Principles of Ethical Leadership

deontology_vs_teleology

The first principle is Deontological or known as rules, which refers to the evidence of actions that taken by someone, not to the consequences of their actions (Ethical Leadership In Business, 2017). The Deontological point of view carries that goodness or badness is evident only in the action itself (Mullins, L. and Christy, G, 2016).

For example, under the Code of Conduct of PepsiCo was listed that, all employees and Board of Directors of the company required to obey all laws in promoting the company’s position relative to government authorities and in making political contributions. The company would be deemed as ethical if the members of the company following the listed regulations regarding to politic. In other words, so as long as the company is following certain rules, they would be viewed as ethical. Breaking rules would be considered as unethical. Similarly with the figure illustrated above, it said that the person who kills the evil would be considered as unethical because of the murdering action without bothering the consequences.

The second principle is Teleological or consequentialist, this principle relates to the consequences or the end result of an action. The more good result an act produces, the better or more right that act. A consequentialist view of ethics accommodates that the goodness or badness of a proposed action is evident only in the consequences of that action (Mullins, L. and Christy, G, 2016).

For example, the CEO of Enron Corporation, American energy, commodities, and service company was found out that the CEO of the company was hiding the financial losses of the trading business and other operations where this company was considered as unethical because the corporation does not disclose the true information to public and contributes many disadvantages (consequence) to other parties, especially to the stakeholder of the company.

Model of Leadership

trust-and-ethics-in-leadership-8-728

In addition, the fundamental of these principles based on someone’s value (one of the model of leadership). Other than value, there are another three model of leadership, which are voice, vision, and virtue (Centre for Ethical Leadership, 2017). However, in this blog only 1 model that would be focused on. Values is about someone’s ideas as to what is right, good or desirable and influence behaviour, perception and motivation (Ethical Leadership In Business, 2017). That values are form through various factors, such as from the environment where they live, area of study or education that they are studying, level of education they have, and so forth. From the value that someone has, it would then determine the way they behave and how responsible they are with their actions.

Concerning to value, the CEO of PepsiCo, Indra Nooyi said that

“ as a leader, ethics are so important; because you can be courage, communicate beautifully and have competence, but if you are unethical, no body would follow you”

pepsi-co-pakistan-human-resource-management-department-5-638

From discussion above, can be could be concluded that the way people perceive of someone’s behaviour would significantly depend on someone’s value or believes that they have, where people might make an assumption of “ethical” either based on Deontological or Teleological point of view.

I personally agree that it is crucial for a leader to be ethical in leading the company. Since, no matter how successful an organisation, if they are not ethical they might put the continuity of their business in danger.

 

 

 

 

References

Center for Ethical Leadership. (2017). Concepts and Philosophies. [online] Available at: http://www.ethicalleadership.org/concepts-and-philosophies.html [Accessed 4 Feb. 2017].

Investopedia. (2016). Enron Scandal: The Fall of a Wall Street Darling. [online] Available at: http://www.investopedia.com/updates/enron-scandal-summary/ [Accessed 4 Feb. 2017].


Jen-Wei Cheng 
Shu-Ching Chang Jyh-Huei Kuo Yu-Ha Cheung , (2014) “Ethical leadership, work engagement, and voice behavior”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 114 Iss: 5, pp.817 – 831


Lisa C. Ehrich 
Jessica Harris Val Klenowski Judy Smeed Nerida Spina , (2015) “The centrality of ethical leadership”, Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 53 Iss: 2, pp.197 – 214


Mary Kay Copeland , 
(2015), The Importance of Ethics and Ethical Leadership in the Accounting Profession, in Cynthia Jeffrey (ed.) Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting (Research on Professional Responsibility and Ethics in Accounting, Volume 19) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.61 – 98


Michel Dion
, (2012) “Are ethical theories relevant for ethical leadership?”, Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 33 Iss: 1, pp.4 – 24

Mullins, L. and Christy, G. (2016). Management & Organisational Behaviour. 11th ed. New York: Pearson, pp.523-524.

OnlineMBA (2017). 10 Most Ethical CEOs of 2016 | OnlineMBA.com. [online] OnlineMBA.com. Available at: http://www.onlinemba.com/blog/blog10-most-ethical-ceos-in-corporate-america/ [Accessed 18 Feb. 2017].

 

 

Week 9 and 10

 

During this week all the lecturer are giving instructions and explanations about final assignment for the end of the first time Moodle.

Where marketing report refers to the assessments of the financial services company. I chose to take Lloyds Bank as the company to be analysed which specifically focus in the UK market. Therefore, research about macro, industrial industry of UK market is necessary as to support the content of the report. Additionally, internal analysis will also be concluded in this report. In terms of model / framework that being used in this report is SOSTAC Model.

 

Furthermore, in strategy moodle, MBA Global Finance Services students are required to create a report which contains environmental audit as well as the assessment of the company strategic directions that have been employed by the company recently. The report utilise Ansoff’s matrix to analyse the business strategic, then BCG Matrix to analyse the position of its SBU in the market, and lastly SAFS Framework are being used to analyse those strategies.

What I have learned during week 7 and 8

Sustainable Strategy (M002).

During week seventh and eighth I have learned about strategic choices 2 and 3, where it is about how to use or apply the best marketing strategies in order to achieve business goals.

In determining marketing strategies, Ansoff’s Matrix is one of the options, which can be implemented in order to identify what marketing strategies that the company has been doing as well as making suggestion for the future directions for the organizations. The figure below will illustrates more for Ansoff’s Matrix.

screenshot-2016-12-05-22-30-24

 

Another marketing strategic choices are BCG Matrix and GE-McKinsey Matrix.

BCG Matrix is suitable for identifying the market share growth of organization, which allows the marketers to determine the attractiveness and balance of a business portfolio.

screenshot-2016-12-05-22-36-51

  • Stars

Strategic business unit (SBU) has a high market share in the market

  • Question marks

SBU within an expanding market but not with a high market share, and known as “problem child”

  • Cash cow

SBU with high market share operating within a mature market.

  • Dogs

SBU with low market share within static or declining markets.

Meanwhile, GE-McKinsey Matrix is appropriate in specifying directional policy matrix, where this matrix offers strategy guidelines given the positioning of the business unit.

screenshot-2016-12-05-22-46-43 

In addition, the table below will demonstrate market attractiveness factors. screenshot-2016-12-05-22-47-39All in all, all those marketing strategic matrix are very useful in evaluating relevant factors in developing the marketing and business strategies.

Marketing in a global age (M003)

During week seven and eight the lecturer has been explaining about SOSTAC model in detail, where that model is applicable for the marketing plan report of course work2.

In discussing the SOSTAC Models, it covers:

  1. Situational Analysis (S)
    • External analysis
      • Macro analysis (PESTEL Framework)
      • Industry analysis (Porter’s five forces)
    • Internal analysis
      • Resources Strategic Analysis (RSA)
      • SWOT/TOWS matrix
      • Value Chain
  1. Objective (O)
    • Marketing and financial objective
  2. Strategic (S)
    • STP
  3. Tactic (T)
    • 7P
  4. Action (A)
  5. Control (C)

Week 5 and 6 of the term.

In this blog I will talk about subject materials that I have learned during week 5 and 6 of the term.

Sustainable strategy

In week 4, I learned about “Strategic Capabilities – part 1”, containing SWOT/TOWS, value chain, and how manager could enhance or improve the capabilities of organisation through understanding threshold and distinctive capabilities of the organisation.

Manager of the company should understand the strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O), and threats (T) of the company in order to stay competitive and sustainable in the market. Additionally, TOWS framework will help the manager to identify what strategic can be formed through that analysis, such as using strengths to take opportunity in the market, or to minimise the threats.

Furthermore, manager could also improve the overall performance of the organisation by comprehending the relations between threshold capabilities with the resources and competences of the organisation; as well as the capabilities for competitive advantage of the organisation with its resources and competences. The framework below will illustrate more in detail.

 

Resources Competences
Threshold Capabilities Threshold resources: tangible and intangible Threshold Competences
Capabilities for competitive advantage Distintive (Unique) resources: tangible and intangible Distinctive or Core Competences

 

 

Threshold capabilities are the essential capabilities that allow the organisation to operate within the market. This capabilities need to be able to change as the circumstances of business environment change so as to be sustainable in the market. Besides, threshold resources are the essential resources that organisation should have in order to fulfil / meet the basic needs of customers. For example, bank needs to have ATM machines and branches in order to provide products and services to its customers.

 

Distinctive resources are resources, which could provide competitive advantage to the organisation; means that those resources are not easy to be copied or obtained by other competitors. Regarding to distinctive competences, this refers to a better skill or ability that one organisation has than its competitors and hard to imitate or copy at the same time.

What I learned on the last two week.

In this blog I would write a reflection of what I have learned for the last two weeks of this term.

During the weeks, there were three subjects that were taken. The first one is, APS which conducted on every Monday. In this class, I learned about “Bottom-up” and “Top-down” research about certain markets and industries as a continual lecturer of last week. Mrs. Carol demonstrated a table of macro and micro analysis, the table will be shown below.

Market                                                                                    Industry

Macro

(Customers)

PESTEL

Macro

(The player in the industry)

PORTER’S 5 FORCES

 

Micro

Value preposition

 

Micro

Competitive advantage

This table delivers a clearer picture of how to instantly understand and bear in mind the theory. Macro analysis provides a “Big-picture” of the market situations, while Micro analysis is a more specific analysis. Regarding to the market, we need to have some knowledge whether there is a target market in the market at the fist step; then we determine the value preposition. Value preposition regards to innovative ideas which give a strong influence to customers life, such as thing that they cannot live without. Substantially, it is important to understand customer purchasing power, whether market could afford products and services that are offered by the organization. Lastly, consider of the sustainability of the products and services of the organization.

In term of industry, it is crucial that the organization posses “competitive advantages” in order to survive and be sustainable in the market. This can be analysed through Porter’s 5 forces model.

 

 

screenshot-2016-10-27-06-03-27

As can be seen from the image above, Manufacturing needs to reduced their manufacturing cost in order to create a competitive price. Higher costs would lead to a higher price; therefore, organization has to set their price at the same level of the market price, overpricing and or underpricing would decline the organization’s competitiveness in the market. Overpricing may cause the customers to switch their preference to other organization, meanwhile, underpricing might cause loses to the organization.

 

What I Learned on the First and Second Week.

 

Week 1

On the first day of the week, Monday 16th September 2016, I learned how global finance is actually operating and happening in the market, by understanding the financial market overview, financial centres, market segments, asset classes, and financial service industry. In the market overview, business “distraction” is a common issue that businesses encounter in the market especially in crisis situation. One of market distractions is pier-to-pier landing, where it consists of both buyers and sellers only. In contrast, ideal financial market involves intermediaries in between the dealers, which normally incorporate regulations and standards, and higher cost.

financial-market-overview
Financial Market Overview

As regards to pier-to-pier platform, it does not require any legal regulations, standards or institutions in order to run the business, merely it just needs a social network through technology. Other benefit of pier-to-pier business is simple and flexible method of agreement, which results in win-win outcome. One good example of pier-to-pier business is Uber, Uber induce disturbance in taxi industry. The reason is because Uber is able to offer a much cheaper price for passenger to travel from one place to another place with a straightforward procedure of agreement, than taxi.

Uber Driver Vs. Taxi Driver
Source: (Google.co.uk, 2016)

 

 

 

Another related example is airbnb, in which airbnb acts as a market distraction to hotel industry. The picture below illustrate how the actual financial market overview is in the market.

 

Hotel Vs. Airbnb
Source: (Rachelbotsman.com, 2016)

 

Week 2

Moreover, in second week I learned about research skills that are required as to provide credible information for investors to make investment decision. The research skills consist of fundamental analysis and ‘Top-Down’ and ‘Bottom-Up’ approach.

Regarding to fundamental analysis, there are two types of research; the first research is qualitative research, involving macro-environmental analysis, micro analysis, and capabilities.

Qualitative Reseach
Fundamental Analysis – Qualitative Reseach

 

While the second is  quantitative research  which contains key metrics, financial ratios, and NPV. Those figures are utilised to support investor in making decision to whether to invest, or not.

screenshot-2016-10-19-19-41-52
Fundamental Analysis – Qualitative Research

 

Subsequently, ‘top-down’ approach shows bigger picture to the investors,for example, the investor want to invest capital in a certain country, he or she will need to see the potential of that country first, once it is done, then followed by the asset allocation. Next, the investor will find out the macroeconomic variables and stock market indexes trends, such as GDP growth of the country, inflation, interest rate, and so on. Charting and technical analysis of previous years reports is highly used in this approach.

Top-down and Bottom-up Approach
Top-down and Bottom-up Approach

 

Top-Down Approach
Top-down approach focuses on macro analysis

 

Lastly, the ‘bottom-up’ approach starts from micro to macro analysis; where this approach will be begun from determining a specific investment, and then fundamental analysis will be conducted thereafter.

screenshot-2016-10-19-19-48-57
Bottom-up Approach